Authors: Nebeling LC, Forman MR, Graubard BI, Snyder RA
Title: Specific and total carotenoid intakes among oral contraceptive and estrogen hormone users in the United States.
Journal: J Am Coll Nutr 15(6):608-13
Date: 1996 Dec
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare carotenoid intakes between hormone users and nonusers in a nationally representative sample of US women by demographic and lifestyle characteristics and to identify those with potentially greater risk for disease. DESIGN: Data from the 1987 National Health Interview Survey's-Epidemiology Supplement food frequency questionnaire were linked to the USDA-NCI Carotenoid database to estimate mean total and specific carotenoid intakes. SUBJECTS: Women (n = 8,962) were grouped by menopausal status and classified by hormone use into premenopausal oral contraceptive users/nonusers (n = 5,918) and postmenopausal estrogen replacement hormone users/nonusers (n = 3,044). STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Mean carotenoid intakes and standard errors were weighted using SUDAAN and adjusted for potential confounding factors using multiple linear regression analysis. Statistically significant differences were at p values < 0.01. RESULTS: Compared to nonusers, oral contraceptive users had lower specific carotenoid intakes. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics differed between oral contraceptive users/nonusers and were examined in relation to carotenoid intakes. More oral contraceptive users than nonusers were married, highly educated, drank alcoholic beverages, and smoked. After adjustment for these factors in a multiple linear regression model, the associations between oral contraceptive use and carotenoid intake remained statistically significant. Mean carotenoid intakes were not significantly different among estrogen hormone replacement users versus nonusers. CONCLUSIONS: Oral contraceptive users have lower dietary carotenoid intakes than nonusers. Since oral contraceptive users smoke and drink more than nonusers, and both factors are associated with lower carotenoid intakes, oral contraceptive users form a potential high risk group for disease.
Last Updated: 02 Mar 2015