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Organization of Population-Based Breast Cancer Screening Programs in 22 Countries Surveyed in 1995

Country Year Organized* Program Began % Target Population Covered by Organized* Programs Year National Coverage Expected Type** of System Facilities Used*** Major Source of Funding for MM in Program
ICSN Program Countries
Australia Natl 1991 75-100 1996 PC MC,GR,M G1
Canada Natl 1988 <25 Not planned DC MC,GR,M G
Finland Natl 1989 100 1989 C MC G
Iceland Natl 1987 100 1989 C MC,GR,M G
Israel Natl 1995 70 1997/1998 C MC G, HMO2
Italy Reg 1990 <25 Not planned DC MC G
Hungary Not begun NA3 2010 NA MC,GR G
Japan Natl 1987 CBE 8 2000 (MM) C MC G
The Netherlands Natl 1988 76-100 1997 PC MC,M G
Sweden Natl 1986 100 1997 PC MC G
United Kingdom Natl 1988 100 1996 PC MC,M G
United States Natl 1991 25-50 Not planned PC MC,GR,M G
Uruguay Not begun <25 Not planned NA MC NA
European Network Pilot Projects
Belgium Reg 1992 <25 Not planned DC MC,GR G
Denmark Reg 1992 <25 Not planned PC GR G
France Reg 1989
Natl 1994
30-40 Not planned DC GR Natl Health Assurance
Germany 4 Not begun NA Not planned NA NA EAC5
Greece 6 Reg 1989/91 60; <25 Natl Not planned DC MC,GR,M EAC
Ireland Reg 1989 <25 2000 PC MC,M  
Luxembourg Natl 1992 36 Not planned C GR Union of Sickness
Portugal Reg 1990 25-50 Not planned PC MC,M G
Spain Reg 1989 <25 Not planned NA MC,M G

Data reflects information from organized screening programs. However, data for the United States reflects government sponsored programs supporting screening for low income women and the voluntary Medicare benefit for women 65 years of age and over.

* In second column refers to national (Natl) and regional (Reg) programs. In third column refers to percentage of the national population covered by national programs if available and by regional programs if no national program was established by 1995.

** C represents centralized systems that have a national policy and administration of programs, and national or both national and regional funding. PC represents partially centralized systems that have the same characteristics as centralized systems except that programs are administered regionally. DC represents decentralized systems that have a national policy, but regional funding and administration.

*** Facilities used for the delivery of mammograms in organized programs: MC = dedicated mammography screening centers; GR = nondedicated centers, such as general radiology departments; M = mobile units.

1 G = Government.

2 HMO = Health maintenance organization.

3 NA = Not applicable.

4 Describes plans in Germany as of 1995 which were not further implemented.

5 EAC = Europe Against Cancer.

6 Greece has two programs. In one, termed Greece I (the Hellenic Society of Oncology), the program began in 1989, currently has a 60% participation for women 40-64 in its region, and uses only mobile units dedicated to screening. In the other, termed Greece II, the program began in 1992, does not have an estimate for participation within its region, and uses both mammography centers and general radiology departments as facilities for screening.

Last Updated: 05 Jan 2016