Authors: McGee EE, Castro FA, Engels EA, Freedman ND, Pfeiffer RM, Nogueira L, Stolzenberg-Solomon R, McGlynn KA, Hemminki K, Koshiol J
Title: Associations between autoimmune conditions and hepatobiliary cancer risk among elderly US adults.
Journal: Int J Cancer 144(4):707-717
Date: 2019 Feb 15
PubMed ID: 30155920
Abstract: Growing evidence suggests that people with autoimmune conditions may be at increased risk of hepatobiliary tumors. In the present study, we evaluated associations between autoimmune conditions and hepatobiliary cancers among adults aged ≥66 in the United States. We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data (1992-2013) to conduct a population-based, case-control study. Cases (n = 32,443) had primary hepatobiliary cancer. Controls (n = 200,000) were randomly selected, cancer-free adults frequency-matched to cases by sex, age and year of selection. Using multivariable logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with 39 autoimmune conditions identified via Medicare claims. We also conducted separate analyses for diagnoses obtained via inpatient versus outpatient claims. Sixteen conditions were associated with at least one hepatobiliary cancer. The strongest risk estimates were for primary biliary cholangitis with hepatocellular carcinoma (OR: 31.33 [95% CI: 23.63-41.56]) and primary sclerosing cholangitis with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (7.53 [5.73-10.57]), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (5.59 [4.03-7.75]), gallbladder cancer (2.06 [1.27-3.33]) and ampulla of Vater cancer (6.29 [4.29-9.22]). Associations with hepatobiliary-related conditions as a group were observed across nearly all cancer sites (ORs ranging from 4.53 [95% CI: 3.30-6.21] for extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma to 7.18 [5.94-8.67] for hepatocellular carcinoma). Restricting to autoimmune conditions diagnosed via inpatient claims, 6 conditions remained associated with at least one hepatobiliary cancer, and several risk estimates increased. In the outpatient restricted analysis, 12 conditions remained associated. Multiple autoimmune conditions are associated with hepatobiliary cancer risk in the US Medicare population, supporting a shared immuno-inflammatory etiology to these cancers.