Publication Abstract

Authors: Li J, Fine J, Brookhart A

Title: Instrumental variable additive hazards models.

Journal: Biometrics 71(1):122-130

Date: 2015 Mar

Abstract: Instrumental variable (IV) methods are popular in non-experimental studies to estimate the causal effects of medical interventions. These approaches allow for the consistent estimation of treatment effects even if important confounding factors are unobserved. Despite the increasing use of these methods, there have been few extensions of IV methods to censored data problems. In this article, we discuss challenges in applying IV techniques to the proportional hazards model and demonstrate the utility of the additive hazards formulation for IV analyses with censored data. Assuming linear structural equation models for the hazard function, we develop a closed-form, two-stage estimator for the causal effect in the additive hazard model. The methods permit both continuous and discrete exposures, and enable the estimation of causal relative survival measures. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are derived and the resulting inferences are shown to perform well in simulation studies and in an application to a data set on the effectiveness of a novel chemotherapeutic agent for colon cancer.