Authors: Sussman R, Carvalho FLF, Harbin A, Zheng C, Lynch JH, Stamatakis L, Hwang J, Williams SB, Hu JC, Kowalczyk KJ
Title: Survival and secondary interventions following treatment for locally-advanced prostate cancer.
Journal: Can J Urol 25(5):9516-9524
Date: 2018 Oct
PubMed ID: 30281010
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The utility of radical prostatectomy (RP) for locally-advanced prostate cancer remains unknown. Retrospective data has shown equivalent oncologic outcomes compared to radiation therapy (RT). RP may provide local tumor control and prevent secondary interventions from local invasion, and may decrease costs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using SEER-Medicare data from 1995-2011 we identified men with locally-advanced prostate cancer undergoing RP or RT. Rates of post-treatment diagnoses and interventions were identified using ICD-9 and CPT codes. Skeletal related events (SRE), androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) utilization, all-cause mortality, prostate cancer-specific mortality, and costs were compared. RESULTS: A total of 8367 men with locally-advanced prostate cancer were identified (6200 RP, 2167 RT). RT was associated with increased urinary obstruction, hematuria, infection, and cystoscopic intervention while RP was associated with increased urethral stricture intervention and erectile dysfunction. Compared to RT, RP was associated with decreased all-cause mortality (3.1 versus 5.2 deaths/100-person-years, p < 0.001), prostate cancer-specific mortality (0.8 versus 2.0 deaths/100-person-years, p < 0.001), SREs (2.0 versus 3.4 events/100 person-years, p < 0.001), and ADT utilization overall (7.4 versus 33.8 doses/100-person-years, p < 0.001) and > 3 years after treatment (3.6 versus 4.6 doses/100-person-years, p < 0.001). Overall and cancer specific costs were significantly lower for RP versus RT. CONCLUSIONS: RT for locally-advanced prostate cancer has a higher incidence of mortality, secondary diagnoses and interventions, SRE, and ADT utilization compared to RP. This may lead to increased costs and have implications for quality of life. Our findings support the utility of RP in appropriately selected men with locally-advanced prostate cancer given the possible decreased morbidity and survival benefit.