Authors: Yang DD, Muralidhar V, Nguyen PL, Buzurovic I, Martin NE, Mouw KW, Devlin PM, Trinh QD, Orio PF 3rd, King MT
Title: Lack of Benefit From the Addition of External Beam Radiation Therapy to Brachytherapy for Intermediate- and High-risk Prostate Cancer.
Journal: Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 99(4):904-911
Date: 2017 Nov 15
PubMed ID: 29063853
Abstract: PURPOSE: A recent randomized controlled trial demonstrated that the addition of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) to brachytherapy did not improve progression-free survival in select patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. We evaluated whether the addition of EBRT to brachytherapy improves prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) for intermediate- and high-risk disease using a large national database. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We identified 5836 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database with a diagnosis of National Comprehensive Cancer Network intermediate-risk (Gleason score 7, prostate-specific antigen 10-20 ng/mL, or stage cT2b-T2c) or high-risk (Gleason score 8-10 or prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL and stage ≤cT3a) prostate cancer who had undergone brachytherapy, with or without EBRT and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Patients were diagnosed from 2004 through 2009. Intermediate-risk patients with Gleason score ≤3+4 and 1 intermediate-risk factor were considered favorable and all others unfavorable. We used multivariable Fine-Gray competing risks regression to study PCSM while adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors and ADT use. RESULTS: Overall, 50.3% of intermediate- and high-risk patients who received brachytherapy and EBRT did not have significantly improved PCSM compared with that of the patients who received brachytherapy alone (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-3.11; P=.322; 5-year PCSM 2.4% vs 1.0%). This lack of benefit was seen among favorable intermediate-risk (AHR 2.66, 95% CI 0.93-7.62, P=.069; 5-year PCSM 1.3% vs 0.6%), unfavorable intermediate-risk (AHR 0.68, 95% CI 0.16-2.96, P=.612; 5-year PCSM 1.0% vs 1.2%), and high-risk (AHR 1.82, 95% CI 0.67-4.98, P=.242; 5-year PCSM 5.3% vs 2.1%) subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that certain patients with intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy might not benefit from the addition of EBRT. A randomized controlled trial of brachytherapy plus ADT with or without EBRT for unfavorable intermediate- and favorable high-risk organ-confined prostate cancer should be undertaken.