Publication Abstract

Authors: Rabin B, Glasgow RE

Title: An implementation science perspective on psychological science and cancer: what is known and opportunities for research, policy, and practice.

Journal: Am Psychol 70(2):211-20

Date: 2015 Feb-Mar

Abstract: We discuss the role of implementation science in cancer and summarize the need for this perspective. Following a summary of key implementation science principles and lessons learned, we review the literature on implementation of cancer prevention and control activities across the continuum from prevention to palliative care. We identified 10 unique relevant reviews, four of which were specific to cancer. Multicomponent implementation strategies were found to be superior to single-component interventions, but it was not possible to draw conclusions about specific strategies or the range of conditions across which strategies were effective. Particular gaps identified include the need for more studies of health policies and reports of cost, cost-effectiveness, and resources required. Following this review, we summarize the types of evidence needed to make research findings more actionable and discuss emerging implementation science opportunities for psychological research on cancer prevention and control. These include innovative study designs (i.e., rapid learning designs, simulation modeling, comparative effectiveness, pragmatic studies, mixed-methods research) and measurement science (i.e., development of context-relevant measures; practical, longitudinal measures to gauge improvement; cost-effectiveness data; and harmonized patient report data). We conclude by identifying a few grand challenges for psychologists that if successfully addressed would accelerate integration of evidence into cancer practice and policy more consistently and rapidly.