Publication Abstract

Authors: Zuo RC, Naik HB, Steinberg SM, Baird K, Mitchell SA, Kuzmina Z, Pavletic SZ, Cowen EW

Title: Risk factors and characterization of vitiligo and alopecia areata in patients with chronic graft-vs-host disease.

Journal: JAMA Dermatol 151(1):23-32

Date: 2015 Jan

Abstract: IMPORTANCE: Cutaneous manifestations of chronic graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) are highly variable and may recapitulate well-characterized autoimmune diseases, including systemic sclerosis and Sjögren syndrome. However, vitiligo and alopecia areata (AA) have not been well characterized in the chronic GvHD setting. OBJECTIVE: To determine laboratory markers, transplant-related factors, and other systemic manifestations associated with vitiligo and/or AA in patients with chronic GvHD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cross-sectional, retrospective study conducted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of 282 adult and pediatric patients with chronic GvHD seen under the NIH natural history protocol between 2004 and 2013. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data, including measures of 11 antibodies, were included in the analysis. Patients with vitiligo and/or AA were identified from dermatologist documentation and photographic evidence. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine risk factors for vitiligo and AA development. RESULTS: Fifteen (5.3%) of 282 patients demonstrated vitiligo (14 of 282; 4.9%) and/or AA (2 of 282; 0.7%) (1 patient had both vitiligo and AA). Univariate analysis identified female donor to male recipient sex mismatch (P = .003), positive test results for anticardiolipin (ACA) IgG (P = .03) or antiparietal antibody (P = .049), elevated CD19 level (P = .045), and normal or elevated IgG level (P = .02) as risk factors for vitiligo or AA. Female donor to male recipient sex mismatch (P = .003) and positive findings for ACA-IgG (P = .01) retained significance in the multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Female donor and female donor to male recipient sex mismatch, in particular, are significantly associated with the development of vitiligo and/or AA. Further studies are needed to explore transplant-related risk factors that may lead to better understanding of the pathomechanisms of chronic GvHD.