Publication Abstract

Authors: Chao C, Xu L, Bhatia S, Cooper R, Brar S, Wong FL, Armenian SH

Title: Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profiles in Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Cancer: The Kaiser Permanente AYA Cancer Survivors Study.

Journal: J Clin Oncol 34(14):1626-33

Date: 2016 May 10

Abstract: PURPOSE: To describe the epidemiology and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer. METHODS: We identified a retrospective cohort of 2-year survivors of AYA cancer who were diagnosed between the ages of 15 to 39 years (1998 to 2009) at Kaiser Permanente Southern California. A comparison group without cancer was selected and matched 10:1 to cancer survivors on the basis of age, sex, Kaiser Permanente Southern California membership, and calendar year. Patients were followed through December 31, 2012, for coronary artery disease, heart failure, and stroke. Time-dependent Poisson regression was used to evaluate the effect that cancer survivorship had on the risk of developing CVD, adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs; ie, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia), ethnicity, smoking, and overweight/obesity. Among cancer survivors, mortality risk by CVD status was examined using Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 5,673 2-year survivors of AYA cancer and 57,617 comparison patients were included, representing 24,839 and 239,073 person-years of follow-up, respectively. Overall, cancer survivors had more than two-fold risk of developing CVD (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.93 to 2.93) when compared with patients without cancer; survivors of leukemia and breast cancer were at the highest risk (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 4.23; 95% CI, 1.73 to 10.31; and 3.63; 95% CI, 2.41 to 5.47, respectively) of developing CVD. Having any of the CVRFs increased the risk of CVD in cancer survivors. Cancer survivors who developed CVD had an 11-fold increased overall mortality risk (hazard ratio, 10.9; 95% CI, 8.1 to 14.8) when compared with survivors without CVD. CONCLUSION: Survivors of AYA cancer are at increased risk for developing CVD. Survival after CVD onset is compromised, and CVRFs are independent modifiers of CVD risk. These data form the basis for identifying high-risk individuals and proactive management of CVRFs.