Authors: Kale HP, Mays DP, Nadpara PA, Slattum PW, Paul AK, Carroll NV
Title: Economic burden of renal cell carcinoma among older adults in the targeted therapy era.
Journal: Urol Oncol 37(6):356.e19-356.e28
Date: 2019 Jun
PubMed ID: 30846388
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study examined the economic burden of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) among older adults. The study also examined healthcare costs by types of resources used and stage at which RCC was diagnosed. METHODS: The study analyzed the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Result-Medicare linked data. We included a prevalent cohort of RCC patients from 2013, diagnosed and continuously enrolled in Medicare from 2005 to 2013. RCC patients were matched to controls selected from a 5% sample of noncancer beneficiaries using propensity score matching to calculate incremental costs. Total healthcare costs (THC) were calculated using a phase-based approach, which classified patients into early, continuing, and late phases of care. Costs were also examined by types of resources used and stage at which RCC was diagnosed. Generalized linear models estimated annual incremental costs per patient. The number of older RCC patients was calculated using SEER-Stat and ProjPrev software. The average incremental THC was multiplied by the estimated number of RCC patients to calculate the total economic burden of RCC among older adults. RESULTS: The study included 10,392 each of RCC and control patients. The average annual THC associated with RCC was $7,419 for all phases, $22,752 for the initial phase, $4,860 for the continuing phase, and $13,232 for the late phase of care. The average THC was $4,584 for patients diagnosed at stage I, $4,727 for stage II, $9,331 for stage III, and $31,637 for stage IV. For patients diagnosed at stages I to III, hospital cost (approximately $1,500-$3,400) was the largest component of THC. For stage IV patients, prescription drug cost ($11,747) was the largest component of THC. The projected number of older RCC patients in 2015 was 204,256. The annual economic burden of RCC after weighting for proportion of patients diagnosed at various stages was estimated to be $2.1 billion. CONCLUSIONS: RCC was associated with a significant economic burden on Medicare. Healthcare costs associated with RCC varied substantially between early stage and metastatic patients. This research provided a baseline that can be used to assess the economic value of emerging therapies among older RCC patients.